Myopia Manual   -     edition  2024

An impartial documentation of all the reasons, therapies and recommendations

Dr. Klaus Schmid

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  • Summary of the literature:
    "What causes myopia?", "How to prevent (progression of) myopia?"
  • Some personal conclusions and ideas about linkages between the various published results

  • Recommendations for myopic / shortsighted / nearsighted people
  • Some practical hints about glasses, contact lenses, surgery
  • Numerous sources for further reading

The situation - and the focus of this paper 
(as PDF - file  343 pages)

Old-fashioned medicine was stating, that myopia is rare and exclusively inherited, and to prescribe glasses is all what you can do, and that the prevention of myopia or the prevention of the progression of myopia (or of a resulting blindness) is not possible.

Today, however, very many people are becoming myopic without myopic parents or grandparents. On the other hand, the life of today is very much different from the life in the past - just to mention the changed environment at work and the changed nutrition.

The idea, to find just one mechanism for myopia and to solve this problem once and forever sounds very tempting, and quite some authors are giving the impression that they are very close to this target, and that most of the promoters of other theories and observations are wrong.

It is by far more likely, however, that all of them are right in the very specific view of their experiments and experiences, because various different - and overlapping - mechanisms towards myopia are obviously existing.

According to this view the main results which were reported by researchers and practitioners for prevention and treatment of myopia are outlined in this paper in a very unbiased and neutral way (making it a short encyclopedia of myopia), and only in a separate chapter it is tried to find some common patterns for these results. 

Additionally, some practical hints about various subjects, which are related to myopia are included, as well as resulting overall recommendations.

  Klaus Schmid 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024
Warning: This book is for personal use only. No reproduction of any kind is allowed without the written permission from the author.

About the author Klaus Schmid

I  am a physicist by education and became interested in  myopia because of the severe shortsighted-ness of my children without myopic ancestors. I started to collect information to help them, and finally wanted to share all this material with everybody who is affected by the problem of myopia. A special motivation was also the experience from my "professional life" that really neutral and unbiased views are rather rare, but highly demanded by the "clients". As a consequence, this paper is intended to be as neutral and unbiased as possible and rather complete.

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Table of Contents of the Manual

PDF file of the Manual (2.5 MB)

The PDF- bookmarks when viewing e.g. with the Acrobat Reader are identical with the table of contents - herewith chapters can be accessed directly. To access these bookmarks click on the "bookmarks"-button on the left side of your Acrobat Reader screen. 
Changes since the last edition are marked in

Summary of Recommendations

The 2021 edition of the Myopia Manual is  available as a printed book with

ISBN-13: 979-8590121427